Accentuate the Positive Geneameme 2017

The best thing about 2017 was its path into 2018 – or so it seemed on initial reflection. That doesn’t mean the short-term memories of the last days in 2017 were bad. Not at all. I spent my time in 2017 where I almost always spend it – in the preparation before undertaking the actual research.
I took a journey this year but first I read the biography of my Uncle Charles and the personnel file of Granddad Daly.
Yes, I did take a cruise in order to gain some context of where Uncle Charlie and where Granddad Daly were and how they fitted into the overall conduct of the Pacific War. And yes, I still have the same question: where was Granddad Daly when he counted out the planes such as Charlie’s and counted them home again. I don’t think he can have done so for Charlie’s squadron.
More planning and research to do in 2018 about Granddad Daly’s war – mainly in war diaries not yet available in digital form.
I took a journey back in time to St James around Anzac Day. It was just as I remembered – the morning sun filtering through the windows and dappling the font in colour. Just the minister, a parishioner and me. I hadn’t been there for a baptism 65 years ago (as I had remembered) but to the dedication of the windows to my Uncle John and Uncle Charlie. The memorial gates were still not back from being restored so I shall be back again this April – and to the Learmonth Burial Ground just up the road.
Squire Turner, my third great grandfather, remains as elusive as ever. Not too rich to attract attention of the papers nor too poor to draw attention of the parish. How can there be so little evidence of a man whose death in 1830 warranted inclusion in the Bath Personal Notices as published in a London paper? In 2017 I found his signature and occasional mention of Squire Turner in the Bathford parish chest material.
My question in 2018 is – where was Squire Turner when he wasn’t in Bathford?
The real joy of 2017 was my DNA research.
It took a while for some of us to get our family trees in order but finally we managed to create a DNA Circle. Now DNA circles for my second great grandparents Francis Baulch and Ann Bowles have expanded to over 20 members each. Furthermore, DNA circles have now been created for Francis Baulch’s parents and for his maternal grandparents Joseph Biddlecombe and Miriam Locke. I certainly wasn’t expecting this success given the difficulties we had getting the first ones created.
Can we expand Francis Baulch’s DNA circle to 50 by year’s end and can we create DNA circles for other ancestors?
More planning and reviewing of family trees and DNA matches in 2018.
Finally, I have really, really enjoyed the past six months engrossed in Visual Phasing (mapping DNA of three siblings or more to their grandparents). It has been a fascinating journey. The learning curve is steep. The learning process is continuous and iterative. Visual Phasing is totally addictive. It has got me around one of my most enduring road blocks. What more can I say? Oh yes! My success with Visual Phasing wouldn’t have been possible had not my sister who wanted an all in one Baulch family tree some years back. Nor would we have had sufficient DNA tests for Visual Phasing without that discussion with my brother and his view of what a good base for DNA testing looked like. Nor would it have been possible without using a workbook for my Visual Phasing in the fashion my daughter used a lab book. My workbook is not only a source of WHAT I have found and WHERE but, more importantly, HOW I have found it and WHAT is still to be found.
In 2018 I shall review what I have done to date, incorporate tips that are still being shared generously by others and, hopefully, glean a family story or two.
Some further reading:
Charles Page, Wings of Destiny (Sydney: Rosenberg Sydney, 2008)
https://the geneticgenealogist.com/2016/11/21/visual-phasing-an-example-part-1-of-5/ (and the following parts follow)
https://www.facebook.com/groups/visualphasing/ (closed group)

Natali’s Bohemian Style!

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Pellentesque quis sodales tellus. Pellentesque at aliquet magna. Mauris vel nunc lobortis, imperdiet velit vel, congue massa. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae. Vestibulum pellentesque cursus risus, in ultrices odio. Morbi dui metus, fringilla quis urna vitae. Nulla lacus magna, mattis sed semper sed, tincidunt sit amet sapien. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Cras neque sem, congue eget iaculis eget, mollis sed lacus. Donec ante nibh, ornare ac eros at, accumsan rhoncus lectus. Praesent finibus et quam id gravida. Donec et velit id arcu commodo tristique congue ac ligula. Proin a tempus justo. In aliquet libero ac lobortis faucibus. Quisque facilisis tincidunt posuere. Aenean finibus tortor dictum nisl semper, ac sodales odio volutpat. Maecenas ultricies hendrerit nisi nec varius. Phasellus vel lectus sed mauris rhoncus tempor sit amet non risus. Aenean eu fringilla diam. Mauris iaculis facilisis sem sit amet blandit.

  • Etiam eget enim vitae elit!
  • Nam semper nulla at turpis!
  • Donec vestibulum ante at nibh!

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Be the change that you wish to see in the world.

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Ethnicity Estimates

Phased Chromosome 21

When some of us started researching our family history we were advised to start with ourselves, then confirm our links to our parents, grandparents and so on up our family tree.
Based on our family stories, photographs and the written records we had we developed our research plan, one that was often focused on looking for more information about a favourite ancestor.
In doing so we used a variety of sources.
Now we have another source to add to our toolbox – DNA – and just as we planned our traditional family research plan so too can we plan our DNA research plan.
Just as in the past we scraped and saved to purchase the next birth, marriage or death certificate so too we should be saving up to purchase the next DNA test in our DNA research plan.
Not to have a DNA plan leaves us open to being flooded with hundreds of supposed DNA matches that in general have little, if any, application to our DNA research plan. We are looking for specific matches – those with other researchers who have ancestors, or an ancestor, in common with ourselves.
The first step in our DNA research plan is to avoid those bright shiny objects that pass across our eyes and distract us.
The first bright shiny object is DNA advice provided by the medical profession. In our role as family historians we are not entitled to provide medical advice. Consequently, the DNA we use for our family history research is quite separate from that used for medical purposes.
The second beguiling object that floats across our eyes is DNA used for anthropological purposes.
For example, it has been exciting to read the research that found evidence of human occupation in northern Australia by 65,000 years ago (see Chris Clarkson et al “Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago” Nature 547 306-310 (20 July 2017).
But do such discoveries help us conquer our own brick walls? The discovery in northern Australia was dated by reference to the fluorescence in the sand in which the discovery was made. Where is the link from our DNA today back to DNA of 65,000 years ago.
However, what is important to note about such discoveries is that they are made at a point in time.
When we think about our own ethnicity are we looking at one point in time?
When I look at myself:
My Parents were born in Australia. Is my ethnicity 100% Australian?
Six of my great grandparents were born in Australia. Two in England. Is my ethnicity 25% English?
Most of my second great grandparents were born in England. Does this make my ethnicity 81% English? It certainly doesn’t account for my Irish fourth great grandfather, John Bourke Ryan.
I have followed our paper family tree up through the branches for this example.
With respect to DNA we receive half our DNA from our father and half our DNA from our mother. But which half do we receive? And which half, as displayed in our family tree did they receive from their parents? And which half did they receive from their parents? And so on. Why, then, do we expect our ethnicity to be precisely the same as that of our siblings when there is doubt about what was received from which grandparent in the first place?
or example, on Chromosome 21 all my maternal DNA came from my maternal grandfather Learmonth. My sister also received all her maternal DNA from our grandfather Learmonth. While our brother also received most of his maternal DNA from our maternal grandfather Learmonth some of his maternal DNA came from our maternal grandmother Learmonth.
All my paternal DNA came from my paternal grandfather Baulch whereas my sister’s paternal DNA came from our grandmother Abbey. Our brother’s paternal DNA originally came about half from our paternal grandfather Baulch and about half from our paternal grandmother Abbey.
This simple example shows quite clearly that we each are unique. While receiving half our DNA from our father and half from our mother what we received that came from each of our grandparents may be very different. If we each calculate our proportion of DNA we get from each of our grandparents the answer is not the same for any two of us. Even at the grandparent level our ethnicity is different. Each of us is, after all, unique.
So why do we expect our ethnicity to be the same?
If we are using DNA as a source for family history purposes we should confine our family history research to the DNA that is used for genetic genealogy or family history purposes.
Results based on DNA used for medical purposes are given for medical reasons. Results based on DNA with ancient origins are for anthropological purposes.
We family historians have our own little sections of DNA that we use for family history purposes.
This doesn’t mean we can’t put our anthropological hat on now and then and tell a good story about our ancient origins. However, there is not necessarily a link between our ancient origins and our family stories of very recent times.

Where am I going to be:
28 July – 7 August 2017 – Unlock the Past Cruise – Papua New Guinea – to see where my uncle and father-in-law were in WWII
19 August 2017 – presenting “Using DNA to solve genealogical puzzles” at the Researching Abroad: British isles & European ancestors – Melbourne (find out more here)
11 November 2017 – presenting a half day session “DNA for family historians” for the Genealogical Society of Victoria (find out more here)
and when I get back from just cruising around the GSV will be taking bookings for DNA consultations (more here) . I expect to concentrate on autosomal DNA tests and I shall only be available on Fridays.
Hope to see you somewhere.

Start Day Positive

Cras eget elit convallis est condimentum congue non id sem. Proin metus dui, eleifend id mollis quis, pulvinar in metus. Nulla pharetra sapien ultricies dui blandit, eget condimentum tortor rhoncus. Donec gravida leo neque, ac consequat diam dignissim ut. In ligula felis, tempus vel est ut, pellentesque fermentum ligula. Proin at dui sagittis, rutrum velit in, fermentum nisl. Donec sagittis, risus vitae mollis pretium, tellus turpis feugiat mi, ac cursus nibh metus quis tortor. Integer ultricies ullamcorper nulla, nec consectetur mi hendrerit eget. Donec at elit vel ex pulvinar vestibulum. Cras tristique molestie leo malesuada sollicitudin. Nunc nec lorem id mi consequat rhoncus ac eget purus. Sed massa orci, volutpat sit amet velit sagittis, placerat euismod felis. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Etiam interdum nulla vitae neque porta interdum quis a velit. Ut semper maximus vulputate.

In sodales leo velit, ac malesuada quam consequat in. Cras elementum feugiat tortor, nec vestibulum turpis consequat eget. Nam massa risus, ultrices et lacus id, maximus tempor tortor. Sed non sapien vitae sem dictum accumsan. Nulla scelerisque felis eget dolor scelerisque dignissim. Proin dictum euismod egestas. Suspendisse potenti. Praesent ullamcorper augue ut turpis sodales, ut luctus mauris mattis. Suspendisse accumsan ex arcu, in viverra odio hendrerit ac. Pellentesque tincidunt tortor nunc, vel commodo neque convallis aliquet. Cras mattis nec mi non sollicitudin. Vivamus semper euismod lectus sit amet ullamcorper. Nullam in nibh malesuada, vehicula sem sit amet, semper velit.

Cras pharetra, mauris sed feugiat accumsan, nisl quam rhoncus erat, non pulvinar urna velit non libero. Ut interdum suscipit fringilla. Donec semper volutpat libero, sed sollicitudin lectus tempus at. Sed congue lacinia tortor. Integer lacinia felis ac odio dictum tempor. Nullam massa mi, pulvinar interdum rutrum sed, pharetra nec dui. Integer a sapien sit amet purus finibus tincidunt. Morbi ac sapien sapien. Phasellus odio ipsum, vehicula hendrerit suscipit vitae, imperdiet ac tortor. Duis auctor facilisis efficitur. Vivamus non tortor pretium, bibendum velit ac, sagittis neque. Fusce varius ut ipsum sit amet viverra. Sed volutpat mauris non ex volutpat, at sagittis sapien dignissim.

Maecenas faucibus feugiat congue. Nam fringilla eros at ante consequat, at commodo nisl ultrices. Morbi ac purus sed erat pellentesque efficitur. Proin tempor quis purus sed vulputate. Cras pharetra luctus mi, vitae ultricies risus scelerisque a. Praesent faucibus sed elit eu aliquam. Morbi congue ipsum mi. Integer urna eros, efficitur a tellus nec, ornare volutpat urna.

Proin rhoncus congue nibh ut egestas. Vivamus a feugiat felis, a pharetra sapien. Nullam consequat, neque ac aliquam tristique, diam tortor pharetra lacus, quis laoreet ligula mi eget neque. Nullam non est mi. Integer eleifend neque non mauris elementum fermentum. Curabitur vitae tempus justo. Nunc fringilla ac tellus nec fermentum. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Proin aliquet, ligula sed sollicitudin pharetra, velit mauris lacinia quam, eu tincidunt diam mauris eget justo. Quisque dictum risus a tincidunt cursus. Mauris non gravida sapien. Quisque eu magna dictum, faucibus ligula eu, rhoncus orci. Integer bibendum nulla id dui tristique, a rhoncus eros euismod. Curabitur in dapibus magna. Quisque nec ipsum odio. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus.

Donec ut arcu dignissim, rhoncus lectus nec, sodales elit. Integer ex metus, imperdiet eu odio sed, rhoncus ultrices orci. Proin condimentum sodales lorem id ultrices. Aenean venenatis magna sem, ac sodales enim congue nec. Sed ut bibendum ex. Aliquam in purus ac augue mollis dapibus. Curabitur sit amet dictum leo, eget finibus dui. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Suspendisse vitae tellus eget arcu pretium dictum. Nam tempor efficitur nulla in mollis. Maecenas orci neque, ullamcorper eu felis sodales, tincidunt luctus dui. Fusce est metus, semper sit amet erat a, molestie finibus arcu. Nullam interdum gravida ex a ornare.

Life Is Adventure

Dras eget elit convallis est condimentum congue non id sem. Proin metus dui, eleifend id mollis quis, pulvinar in metus. Nulla pharetra sapien ultricies dui blandit, eget condimentum tortor rhoncus. Donec gravida leo neque, ac consequat diam dignissim ut. In ligula felis, tempus vel est ut, pellentesque fermentum ligula. Proin at dui sagittis, rutrum velit in, fermentum nisl. Donec sagittis, risus vitae mollis pretium, tellus turpis feugiat mi, ac cursus nibh metus quis tortor. Integer ultricies ullamcorper nulla, nec consectetur mi hendrerit eget. Donec at elit vel ex pulvinar vestibulum. Cras tristique molestie leo malesuada sollicitudin. Nunc nec lorem id mi consequat rhoncus ac eget purus. Sed massa orci, volutpat sit amet velit sagittis, placerat euismod felis. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Etiam interdum nulla vitae neque porta interdum quis a velit. Ut semper maximus vulputate.

In sodales leo velit, ac malesuada quam consequat in. Cras elementum feugiat tortor, nec vestibulum turpis consequat eget. Nam massa risus, ultrices et lacus id, maximus tempor tortor. Sed non sapien vitae sem dictum accumsan. Nulla scelerisque felis eget dolor scelerisque dignissim. Proin dictum euismod egestas. Suspendisse potenti. Praesent ullamcorper augue ut turpis sodales, ut luctus mauris mattis. Suspendisse accumsan ex arcu, in viverra odio hendrerit ac. Pellentesque tincidunt tortor nunc, vel commodo neque convallis aliquet. Cras mattis nec mi non sollicitudin. Vivamus semper euismod lectus sit amet ullamcorper. Nullam in nibh malesuada, vehicula sem sit amet, semper velit.

Cras pharetra, mauris sed feugiat accumsan, nisl quam rhoncus erat, non pulvinar urna velit non libero. Ut interdum suscipit fringilla. Donec semper volutpat libero, sed sollicitudin lectus tempus at. Sed congue lacinia tortor. Integer lacinia felis ac odio dictum tempor. Nullam massa mi, pulvinar interdum rutrum sed, pharetra nec dui. Integer a sapien sit amet purus finibus tincidunt. Morbi ac sapien sapien. Phasellus odio ipsum, vehicula hendrerit suscipit vitae, imperdiet ac tortor. Duis auctor facilisis efficitur. Vivamus non tortor pretium, bibendum velit ac, sagittis neque. Fusce varius ut ipsum sit amet viverra. Sed volutpat mauris non ex volutpat, at sagittis sapien dignissim.

Maecenas faucibus feugiat congue. Nam fringilla eros at ante consequat, at commodo nisl ultrices. Morbi ac purus sed erat pellentesque efficitur. Proin tempor quis purus sed vulputate. Cras pharetra luctus mi, vitae ultricies risus scelerisque a. Praesent faucibus sed elit eu aliquam. Morbi congue ipsum mi. Integer urna eros, efficitur a tellus nec, ornare volutpat urna.

Proin rhoncus congue nibh ut egestas. Vivamus a feugiat felis, a pharetra sapien. Nullam consequat, neque ac aliquam tristique, diam tortor pharetra lacus, quis laoreet ligula mi eget neque. Nullam non est mi. Integer eleifend neque non mauris elementum fermentum. Curabitur vitae tempus justo. Nunc fringilla ac tellus nec fermentum. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Proin aliquet, ligula sed sollicitudin pharetra, velit mauris lacinia quam, eu tincidunt diam mauris eget justo. Quisque dictum risus a tincidunt cursus. Mauris non gravida sapien. Quisque eu magna dictum, faucibus ligula eu, rhoncus orci. Integer bibendum nulla id dui tristique, a rhoncus eros euismod. Curabitur in dapibus magna. Quisque nec ipsum odio. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus.

Donec ut arcu dignissim, rhoncus lectus nec, sodales elit. Integer ex metus, imperdiet eu odio sed, rhoncus ultrices orci. Proin condimentum sodales lorem id ultrices. Aenean venenatis magna sem, ac sodales enim congue nec. Sed ut bibendum ex. Aliquam in purus ac augue mollis dapibus. Curabitur sit amet dictum leo, eget finibus dui. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Suspendisse vitae tellus eget arcu pretium dictum. Nam tempor efficitur nulla in mollis. Maecenas orci neque, ullamcorper eu felis sodales, tincidunt luctus dui. Fusce est metus, semper sit amet erat a, molestie finibus arcu. Nullam interdum gravida ex a ornare.

Jeans is Always Trendy

Cras eget elit convallis est condimentum congue non id sem. Proin metus dui, eleifend id mollis quis, pulvinar in metus. Nulla pharetra sapien ultricies dui blandit, eget condimentum tortor rhoncus. Donec gravida leo neque, ac consequat diam dignissim ut. In ligula felis, tempus vel est ut, pellentesque fermentum ligula. Proin at dui sagittis, rutrum velit in, fermentum nisl. Donec sagittis, risus vitae mollis pretium, tellus turpis feugiat mi, ac cursus nibh metus quis tortor. Integer ultricies ullamcorper nulla, nec consectetur mi hendrerit eget. Donec at elit vel ex pulvinar vestibulum. Cras tristique molestie leo malesuada sollicitudin. Nunc nec lorem id mi consequat rhoncus ac eget purus. Sed massa orci, volutpat sit amet velit sagittis, placerat euismod felis. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Etiam interdum nulla vitae neque porta interdum quis a velit. Ut semper maximus vulputate.

In sodales leo velit, ac malesuada quam consequat in. Cras elementum feugiat tortor, nec vestibulum turpis consequat eget. Nam massa risus, ultrices et lacus id, maximus tempor tortor. Sed non sapien vitae sem dictum accumsan. Nulla scelerisque felis eget dolor scelerisque dignissim. Proin dictum euismod egestas. Suspendisse potenti. Praesent ullamcorper augue ut turpis sodales, ut luctus mauris mattis. Suspendisse accumsan ex arcu, in viverra odio hendrerit ac. Pellentesque tincidunt tortor nunc, vel commodo neque convallis aliquet. Cras mattis nec mi non sollicitudin. Vivamus semper euismod lectus sit amet ullamcorper. Nullam in nibh malesuada, vehicula sem sit amet, semper velit.

Cras pharetra, mauris sed feugiat accumsan, nisl quam rhoncus erat, non pulvinar urna velit non libero. Ut interdum suscipit fringilla. Donec semper volutpat libero, sed sollicitudin lectus tempus at. Sed congue lacinia tortor. Integer lacinia felis ac odio dictum tempor. Nullam massa mi, pulvinar interdum rutrum sed, pharetra nec dui. Integer a sapien sit amet purus finibus tincidunt. Morbi ac sapien sapien. Phasellus odio ipsum, vehicula hendrerit suscipit vitae, imperdiet ac tortor. Duis auctor facilisis efficitur. Vivamus non tortor pretium, bibendum velit ac, sagittis neque. Fusce varius ut ipsum sit amet viverra. Sed volutpat mauris non ex volutpat, at sagittis sapien dignissim.

Maecenas faucibus feugiat congue. Nam fringilla eros at ante consequat, at commodo nisl ultrices. Morbi ac purus sed erat pellentesque efficitur. Proin tempor quis purus sed vulputate. Cras pharetra luctus mi, vitae ultricies risus scelerisque a. Praesent faucibus sed elit eu aliquam. Morbi congue ipsum mi. Integer urna eros, efficitur a tellus nec, ornare volutpat urna.

Proin rhoncus congue nibh ut egestas. Vivamus a feugiat felis, a pharetra sapien. Nullam consequat, neque ac aliquam tristique, diam tortor pharetra lacus, quis laoreet ligula mi eget neque. Nullam non est mi. Integer eleifend neque non mauris elementum fermentum. Curabitur vitae tempus justo. Nunc fringilla ac tellus nec fermentum. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Proin aliquet, ligula sed sollicitudin pharetra, velit mauris lacinia quam, eu tincidunt diam mauris eget justo. Quisque dictum risus a tincidunt cursus. Mauris non gravida sapien. Quisque eu magna dictum, faucibus ligula eu, rhoncus orci. Integer bibendum nulla id dui tristique, a rhoncus eros euismod. Curabitur in dapibus magna. Quisque nec ipsum odio. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus.

Donec ut arcu dignissim, rhoncus lectus nec, sodales elit. Integer ex metus, imperdiet eu odio sed, rhoncus ultrices orci. Proin condimentum sodales lorem id ultrices. Aenean venenatis magna sem, ac sodales enim congue nec. Sed ut bibendum ex. Aliquam in purus ac augue mollis dapibus. Curabitur sit amet dictum leo, eget finibus dui. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Suspendisse vitae tellus eget arcu pretium dictum. Nam tempor efficitur nulla in mollis. Maecenas orci neque, ullamcorper eu felis sodales, tincidunt luctus dui. Fusce est metus, semper sit amet erat a, molestie finibus arcu. Nullam interdum gravida ex a ornare.

Charles Salter was my main focus in 2016

This post uses the Geneameme 2016 list as a border around which to reflect on my 2016 that was. In doing so my paddock is fenced by just a few of the suggested Geneameme 2016 talking points.
Ruth feels at home when she turns west onto the Hamilton Highway. I also feel the same tension disappear when I put city driving and drivers behind me. But for me the feeling of being safely home comes much later in my journey. That feeling of home doesn’t start until I have crossed the Paradise bridge. If it’s early in the night I look for home lights peeping through the plantation at the far corner of the Horse Paddock. But on I go. It’s when I turn right at Campbell’s Paddock that I feel a sense of home.
It may appear that I may have done little in 2016. Yet I have travelled in time to Campbell’s Paddock. It may seem that the year was full of obstacles, detours, Cheshire cats and afternoon tea parties. The reality is that not only 2016 but some of the preceding years have set the scene for 2017 quite nicely. Each year has over 360 days through which to travel before turning the corner at Campbell’s Paddock. It’s when my “driver reviver” reflection time starting at about day 360 that a year falls into place.
2016 wasn’t about laying any notable achievements on the table for all to see. 2016 was all about winding through the path that is my family history research. 2016 was about reviewing, planning and revisiting my research methodology and the tools I use. In this way 2016 was just another family history year. Nevertheless, there were a couple of highlights in 2016.

18 It was exciting to finally meet Clare and Mary.

Edith Learmonth (nee Salter) on the left and Agnes Salter (nee Skene) on the right.
Edith Learmonth (nee Salter) on the left and Agnes Salter (nee Skene) on the right.

It was coffees in one of Melbourne’s arcades that were the highlight of 2016. I met my Salter cousin Clare first. Then I met our cousin Mary. I had heard a lot them from Aunt Agnes when she came to stay with my grandparents over the summer. It was delightful to meet Clare in person some forty years after listening to the stories Aunt Agnes used to tell. These meetings with relatives and listening to their stories is what I enjoy most about family history. 2016 was a double delight when I met another Salter cousin Mary and listened to her in amazement. Mary is following in the footsteps of our great grandfather Charles Salter. But until 2016 she wasn’t aware that she is doing so. Is that genes? Perhaps. More likely, it is the tradition of Christ’s Hospital that has filtered down the generations.

1 Some elusive ancestors I found were the Salter children in boarding school at census time

Mary’s visit caused me to review my research into my Salter ancestors. Charles Salter was at Christ’s Hospital at the time of the 1851 census. I have now found his missing siblings and cousins who weren’t home at census time. They were also away at school. Plotting their whereabouts on Google Maps gave a nice little snapshot of where they went.

10 A social media tool I enjoyed using for genealogy were closed Facebook groups

It’s sad that the potential of closed Facebook groups hasn’t captured more attention from family history researchers. Two closed Facebook groups I am enjoying are Amy Johnson Crow’s course 31 Days to Better Genealogy (for the second years) and the Genealogical Society of Victoria’s one for their GSV Writers Circle.
The planning I did in 2016 has set up 2017 with just four simple goals. Now to polish each those goals into smart genealogy goals.
I wonder how different my Geneameme 2017 will be?

The X Chromosome – Planning and Indulgence

The X Chromosome inheritance patterns are complex but when the planning is right and your relatives indulge your curiousity about their DNA then the resulting X DNA matches seem serendipitous.
My brother wisely counselled establishing a sound foundation upon which to build my genetic genealogy research. My cousin Val started me off by agreeing to indulge my curiousity and undergo a DNA test.
My curiousity at that time concerned the origins of George Watts’s wife Mary McCade or McCord who was born about 1800 in Foreign Parts.

If you are a descendant please read on. If you believe you may have inherited some of your X DNA from George’s family or, in particular, from his wife I would love to hear from you.
Even if you aren’t a member of this family do read on.
I have been putting off my analysis of Lyn and Val’s X chromosome matches even though their DNA test results were the first DNA test results I received. My procrastination is entirely because of the inheritance patterns of the X chromosome. Of course, its complexity is no reason to ignore significant X DNA matches. So the purpose of this post is to look at some X DNA match results I have received. Even if I take the low road to get there.
Before I delve into the mysteries of X DNA let me just go back to the beginning of analysing our DNA matches. DNA for family history purposes isn’t just one analysis process but four:
.   analysis of matches on the X chromosome
.   analysis of matches on the Y chromosome
.   analysis of matches on the 22 autosomal chromosomes and
.   analysis of matches for mitochondrial DNA.
Let me set the scene for analysing X DNA matches by beginning with a short review of the analysis of other DNA matches.
The most common analysis has been of the Y Chromosome. It’s relative simple to identify which ancestor provided a male’s Y DNA. A male receives his Y DNA from his father. In turn, his father receives his Y DNA from his father. And so on up the paternal line (following the family surname).
Identifying which ancestor provided our mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) follows a similar process. With a slight change. All children, whether male or female, receive their mtDNA from their mother. I received my mtDNA from my mother. As did my brother. In turn our mother received her mtDNA from her mother. And so on up the maternal line (with, in my family at least, the surname changing each generation).
There are no half way measures with Y DNA and mtDNA. My brother received all of our paternal great grandfather’s Y DNA and we each received the same mtDNA from our maternal great grandmother.
Autosomal DNA (atDNA) is a little different. It is more difficult to determine which ancestor we received our atDNA from. Suffice to say, on average, we receive half our atDNA from our father and half from our mother. My father received half his atDNA from his father and half from his mother. Similarly, my mother received half her atDNA from her father and half from her mother. This means I received half my atDNA from each of my two parents, a quarter from each of my four grandparents, and one eighth from my eight great grandparents and so on up my family tree.These amounts aren’t set in stone however. They are not precise. It’s only probable that I received precisely half my atDNA from my father and precisely half from my mother.
With Y DNA and mtDNA it is clear which is received from which of our ancestors. With atDNA we can estimate how much atDNA we received from each of our ancestors but it is less clear just which DNA we received from a particular ancestor.
Now we come to the X Chromosome and its inheritance patterns.
Let’s start with myself. I received half my X DNA from my father and half my X DNA from my mother. In turn, my mother received half her X DNA from her father and half from her mother. As far as this example goes, the X DNA inheritance pattern is like the inheritance pattern for autosomal DNA.Now let’s look at my brother. My brother received no X DNA from our father because he received a Y chromosome instead. That is, he received all his X DNA from our mother. Similarly, my father received no X DNA from his father. Instead he received his Y DNA from his father and all his X DNA from his mother.Let’s now look at a simple X DNA match before looking at a couple more complex and interesting DNA matches.
It’s expected that my brother and I match on 50% of our X DNA (with that X DNA originating from our mother). In fact, we matched on 88.5 centiMorgans (cMs) – 45% of our X DNA and a little less than estimated. Here is what our match looks like in the Family Tree DNA chromosome browser:Now let’s look at two first cousins – Lyn and Val. Their mothers were sisters and were daughters of Samuel and Eliza Ann.Lyn received half her X DNA from her father and half from her mother. In turn, Lyn’s mother received half her X DNA from her father, Samuel, and half from her mother, Eliza Ann. That is, Lyn received 25% of her X DNA from her grandfather Samuel and 25% from her grandmother Eliza Ann.
Similarly, Val received half her X DNA from her father and half from her mother. In turn, Val’s mother received half her X DNA from her father, Samuel, and half from her mother, Eliza Ann. Here is how Lyn and Val’s X DNA match of 49.4 cMs (25% of their X DNA) looks like in the Family Tree DNA chromosome browser:As expected Lyn and Val match on just over half the number of cMs that my brother and I do.
Samuel and Eliza Ann are my paternal great grandparents but neither my brother and I would have received any X DNA from this line as my father received a Y chromsome from my grandfather and, consequently, no X DNA from my grandfather.
Now do I have anyone else who may have received some part of their X DNA from my great grandparents Samuel and Eliza Ann? My first cousin Marilyn did. And this is where expected X DNA becomes complicated.
Marilyn received half her X DNA from her father and half from her mother. In turn, her mother received half her X DNA from our grandfather and half from our grandmother. Now our grandfather received his Y chromosome from his father, Samuel and his X chromosome from his mother Eliza Ann. The probability is that Marilyn received 25% of her X DNA from her great grandmother, Eliza Ann and none from her great grandfather Samuel.
There are two points to take note of here.
Firstly, X DNA isn’t like mtDNA. It doesn’t merely go up the female line. You can have one male in the sequence. Our grandfather in Marilyn’s sequence is one example. But you can’t have two males in the sequence and inherit X DNA from that line. My brother and I haven’t received any X DNA from our great grandparents Samuel and Eliza Ann because there are two men in the line – my father and my grandfather.
Secondly, any match that Marilyn may have on her X DNA with either Lyn or Val, must be attributable to Marilyn’s great grandmother Eliza Ann because our grandfather received no X chromosome from his father Samuel. Marilyn shares 58.3 cMs (30%) with Lyn and 72.9 cMs (38%) with Val.When I map Marilyn’s matches with Lyn and Val I see the segments of Marilyn’s X DNA that come from her great grandmother Eliza Ann.

It is Lyn’s X DNA match that I find most intriguing. She has a X DNA match with:
• Val, her first cousin on her mother’s side
• Marilyn, a first cousin once removed on her mother’s side and
• Rick, her second cousin on her father’s side.

So now let’s look at Lyn’s X DNA match with Val. Lyn received half her X DNA from her mother who received her X DNA from her parents Samuel and Eliza Ann. But I don’t know which X DNA Lyn’s mother received from her father Samuel and which she received from her mother Eliza Ann.
The situation is the same for Val.
Consequently, where Lyn and Val match on their X chromosome I don’t know whether that match is due to X DNA they each received from their grandfather or is due to X DNA they each received from their grandmother. Further testing is required.
This is different to the scenario of Lyn’s X DNA match with Marilyn where the inheritance pattern of X DNA indicates that that match could only have come from X DNA inherited from Eliza Ann.Lyn also has an X DNA match with her second cousin Rick on her paternal side. Rick inherited all his X DNA from his mother (as he inherited his Y chromosome from his father). Rick’s mother inherited half her X DNA from her father. In turn he inherited all his X DNA from his mother Jane (as he inherited his Y chromosome from his father).
Lyn inherited half her X DNA from her father. Her father inherited all his X DNA from his mother (as he inherited his Y chromosome from his father). She inherited half her X DNA from her father and half from her mother Jane.
We have another instance here of being able to determine which ancestor DNA came from. Under the inheritance pattern of the X chromosome Lyn and Rick can only match on X DNA with regards to X DNA they inherited from Jane.
Rick and Lyn have a match of 91.9 cMs (or 47%) on their X chromosome.Putting Lyn’s three X DNA matches together we can see that she can attribute almost 65% to a specific ancestor (Jane or Eliza Ann) and the balance to either Samuel or Eliza Ann.
There is further testing required to attribute her match with Val to either Samuel or to Eliza.
For those of you who have tested in AncestryDNA and would like to explore your X chromosome all is not impossible. Download your raw data from AncestryDNA and upload it into Gedmatch for testing.

Thank you Kathy for the suggestion to use fan charts from Legacy Family Tree. They worked! These and other charts drawn in Excel were drawn by me but are strongly based on Blaine Bettinger’s trees. See, for example, his recent book Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy by Blaine T Bettinger as well as  Foundations in DNA by Blaine Bettinger: A recent series of 5 webinars found in Legacy Family Tree’s Webinar Library.
The Family Tree DNA chromosome browser examples came from our matches at Family Tree DNA , the Gedmatch chromosome map came out matches uploaded on to Gedmatch and Kitty Cooper’s chromosome map can be found on Kitty Cooper’s Blog under Tools.

Genetic Genealogy (DNA) as a family history source

DNA Collage

What triggered my interest in DNA or Genetic Genealogy and its possibility as a source for family history research? It’s time, after two years of exploring DNA tests, to reflect upon why I started and where I have ended up.

Curiousity was the first reason I started looking at DNA. Knowledge of DNA has come a long, long way since my first year in a university lab. But there were other reasons as well I started looking at DNA for family history purposes. It’s always nice to have another primary source to confirm my oral and written family history. I also had the idea that perhaps DNA may help break down some of my family history brick walls. So far this hasn’t been the case in relation to two of my most difficult brick walls. Where there is still some doubt about my conclusions. Finally, as DNA can only be collected from my living relatives I approached a couple of my father’s cousins and was delighted to receive their permission undergo a test. Doubly delighted as I have no living uncles or aunts and only one first cousin. Continue reading “Genetic Genealogy (DNA) as a family history source”

Stony barriers

This blog is the final of four blogs written for National Family History Month 2016 and describes volcanic stony barriers that are a little more than they seem.
A land of sweeping plains? Thousands of years ago my favourite place may have been part of a verdant plain. Thousands of years ago before the volcanoes were active. Then my favourite place may have looked like the freshly mown lawns and the avenues of elms that are just a short walk across the tram lines from my home.
Continue reading “Stony barriers”